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Reference Terms

To know more about quality control terms, please view followings

*Sampling method
For all goods inspection, our inspectors use the MIL STD-105E tables as sampling method, which are recognized standards by every industrial company. The standard now has equivalents in all national and international standardization organization. This standard is a proven method to accept or reject a production lot by inspecting randomly selected samples.

*Batch/Lot
A batch/lot is a collection of products -all identical in size, type, conditions and time of production- from which a sample size will be taken to decide whether or not it conforms to the acceptance standard.

*Lot size
The lot size is the total number of units available for random sampling. The lot size only includes packed products.                                  

*Sample size
The sample size is the total number of units to be inspected.

*Sample size code letter
The sample size code letter is the link between the table I and the table II, in the AQL tables.

*General Inspection Level
The General Inspection Level is used for general inspection items & test. It determines the relation between the size of the lot and the size of the sample inspected. For a given lot size, increasing the Quality Level means increasing the Sample Size. This improves accuracy but also increases the time needed to complete the inspection. The Level can be chosen in I / II, or III.
Our default inspection Level is II.

*Special Inspection Level
The special inspection level is used for special inspection item or test. The special inspection level can range in S1/ S2 / S3 or S4.              

*Acceptance Sampling
Acceptance Sampling is used to decide whether to accept or reject a production. It is performed once the production lot has been completed and packed.
The basic procedure of Acceptance Sampling is:
· Take a lot of product
· Select samples from the lot
· Inspect the units in the samples
· Use the result to decide whether to accept or reject the lot.

 *AQL (Acceptable Quality Level)
The Acceptable Quality Level (AQL) establishes a maximum allowable defective level or variation from the standard.
The inspection will cease immediately if the defective number of the product being inspected exceed the allowable maximum Level.

*Rejection number
The rejection number is equal to the maximum allowable defective number +1, which represents the limit of unallowable defective units. If the total number of sampled product presenting this type of defect is equal to or exceeds the rejection number, the production has failed.                

*Defect classification
Defects detected during the inspection are generally classified in 3 categories:
l   Critical defect
l   Major defect
l   Minor defect

*Critical Defect
In general The "Critical Defect" corresponds to a defect likely to result in unsafe conditions for end-users.
Of course you can specify your own list of critical defect to be inspected.
For critical defect, the defect AQL is 0. In other words, any critical defect is unallowable in the inspection.

*Major Defect
This defective corresponds to a defect other than critical, which is likely to result in failure, or to reduce the usability of the unit of product for its intended purpose.
A product has a major defect when it is not dangerous, but might not be sold because of the defect.
You can specify your own list of major defects to be inspected.
Our default AQL is 1.0 or 2.5 for major defect.

*Minor Defect
This defective corresponds to a defect that is not likely to reduce the usability of the unit of product for its intended purpose, or is a little departure from established standards having bearing on the effective use or appearance of the unit etc.
A minor defect is nevertheless a workmanship defect beyond the defined quality standard.
You can specify your own list of minor defects to be inspected.
Our default AQL is 2.5 or 4.0 for minor defects.

*Initial Production Inspection (IPI)
This process is conducted at the beginning of the production line and is based on the customer's specifications and reference sample.
The Inspection focuses not only on the quality of the components and materials used in the production process, but also includes a visual check on the quality of packing materials and accessories. The inspector will also monitor the assembly process and check the first production run.
The Initial Production Inspection allows an early (and thus cost-saving) prevention of defective components as well as timely corrections if needed.

*During Production Inspection (DPI)
The production is inspected when at least 25% of the order has been completed so as to ensure that contractual obligations regarding specifications, packaging, packing and marking are met.
If improvement recommendations and rectifications advices have been given during an Initial Production Inspection, the During Production Inspection will enable to check whether these advices have been successfully followed. More generally, the During Production Inspection allows giving recommendations on-site, so that the quality is maintained throughout the entire production phase.

*Final Random Inspection
This is carried out when at least 80% of the goods ordered are packed in export package. Samples are selected at random, according to sampling standards and procedures. The inspection ensures that the production is in accordance with the specifications, purchase orders or letters of credit.


*Loading Supervision
This is carried out in the manufacture's warehouse or at the forwarder's premises.
The inspector first checks the quality and quantity of the goods to be shipped to make sure that the right products will be delivered.
The inspector then monitors the entire loading phase to ensure that the container(s) is in good condition, and that the loading is performed under acceptable circumstances.

*ISO
ISO is the International Organization for Standardization, founded in 1946 to promote the development of international standards and related activities, including conformity assessment, to facilitate the exchange of goods and services worldwide. ISO is composed of member bodies from over 90 countries and covers all areas except those related to electrical and electronic engineering, which are covered by the International Electro-technical Commission (IEC).
The results of ISO's technical work are published as International Standards or Guides.